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你值得收藏的66个实用的css开发技巧之行为技巧

在上篇文章《你值得收藏的66个实用的css开发技巧之布局技巧》我们讲了Layout Skill布局技巧知识,本篇文章接着为大家讲有关Behavior Skill行为技巧知识,赶紧搬好小板凳坐下学习起来。

Behavior Skill

使用overflow-scrolling支持弹性滚动

要点:iOS页面非body元素的滚动操作会非常卡(Android不会出现此情况),通过overflow-scrolling:touch调用Safari原生滚动来支持弹性滚动,增加页面滚动的流畅度
场景:iOS页面滚动

兼容:iOS自带-webkit-overflow-scrolling

实例代码:

body {
    -webkit-overflow-scrolling: touch;
}
.elem {
    overflow: auto;
}

使用transform启动GPU硬件加速

要点:有时执行动画可能会导致页面卡顿,可在特定元素中使用硬件加速来避免这个问题

场景:动画元素(绝对定位、同级中超过6个以上使用动画)

兼容:transform

实例代码:

.elem {
    transform: translate3d(0, 0, 0); /* translateZ(0)亦可 */
}

使用attr()抓取data-*

要点:在标签上自定义属性data-*,通过attr()获取其内容赋值到content上

场景:提示框

兼容:data-*、attr()

实例代码:

HTML

<div class="bruce flex-ct-y">
	<a class="tooltips" href="https://www.baidu.com" data-msg="Hello World">提示框</a>
	<a class="tooltips" href="https://www.baidu.com"></a>
</div>

CSS

.tooltips {
	position: relative;
	margin-top: 10px;
	padding: 0 20px;
	border-radius: 10px;
	height: 40px;
	background-color: $purple;
	line-height: 40px;
	color: #fff;
	&::after {
		position: absolute;
		left: 0;
		top: 0;
		border-radius: 5px;
		width: 100%;
		height: 100%;
		background-color: rgba(#000, .5);
		opacity: 0;
		text-align: center;
		font-size: 12px;
		content: attr(data-msg);
		transition: all 300ms;
	}
	&:first-child {
		margin-top: 0;
	}
	&:hover::after {
		left: calc(100% + 20px);
		opacity: 1;
	}
	&[href]:empty::before {
		content: attr(href);
	}
	&[href]:empty:hover::after {
		display: none;
	}
}

效果展示:
使用attr()抓取data-*

使用:valid和:invalid校验表单

要点:使用伪类:valid和:invalid配合pattern校验表单输入的内容

场景:表单校验

兼容:pattern、:valid、:invalid

实例代码:

HTML

<div class="bruce flex-ct-x">
	<form class="form-validation">
		<div>
			<label>名字</label>
			<input type="text" placeholder="请输入你的名字(1到10个中文)" pattern="^[\u4e00-\u9fa5]{1,10}$" required>
		</div>
		<div>
			<label>手机</label>
			<input type="text" placeholder="请输入你的手机" pattern="^1[3456789]\d{9}$" required>
		</div>
		<div>
			<label>简介</label>
			<textarea required></textarea>
		</div>
	</form>
</div>

CSS

.form-validation {
	width: 500px;
	div {
		margin-top: 10px;
		&:first-child {
			margin-top: 0;
		}
	}
	label {
		display: block;
		padding-bottom: 5px;
		font-weight: bold;
		font-size: 16px;
	}
	input,
	textarea {
		display: block;
		padding: 0 20px;
		outline: none;
		border: 1px solid #ccc;
		width: 100%;
		height: 40px;
		caret-color: $blue;
		transition: all 300ms;
		&:valid {
			border-color: $green;
			box-shadow: inset 5px 0 0 $green;
		}
		&:invalid {
			border-color: $red;
			box-shadow: inset 5px 0 0 $red;
		}
	}
	textarea {
		height: 122px;
		resize: none;
		line-height: 30px;
		font-size: 16px;
	}
}

效果展示:
使用:valid和:invalid校验表单

使用pointer-events禁用事件触发

要点:通过pointer-events:none禁用事件触发(默认事件、冒泡事件、鼠标事件、键盘事件等),相当于<button>的disabled

场景:限时点击按钮(发送验证码倒计时)、事件冒泡禁用(多个元素重叠且自带事件、a标签跳转)

兼容:pointer-events

实例代码:

HTML

<div class="bruce flex-ct-x">
	<a class="disabled-trigger" href="https://www.mybj123.com">点我</a>
</div>

CSS

.disabled-trigger {
	padding: 0 20px;
	border-radius: 10px;
	height: 40px;
	background-color: $purple;
	pointer-events: none;
	line-height: 40px;
	color: #fff;
}

JS

document.getElementsByClassName("disabled-trigger")[0].addEventListener("click", () => alert("Hello World"));

效果展示:
使用pointer-events禁用事件触发

使用+或~美化选项框

要点:

场景:选项框美化、选中项增加选中样式

兼容:+、~

实例代码:

HTML

<div class="bruce flex-ct-x">
	<ul class="beauty-selection">
		<li>
			<input type="radio" name="radioName" id="fed-engineer" hidden>
			<label for="fed-engineer"></label>
			<span>前端工程师</span>
		</li>
		<li>
			<input type="radio" name="radioName" id="bed-engineer" hidden>
			<label for="bed-engineer"></label>
			<span>后端工程师</span>
		</li>
		<li>
			<input type="radio" name="radioName" id="fsd-engineer" hidden>
			<label for="fsd-engineer"></label>
			<span>全栈工程师</span>
		</li>
	</ul>
</div>

CSS

.beauty-selection {
	display: flex;
	li {
		display: flex;
		align-items: center;
		margin-left: 20px;
		&:first-child {
			margin-left: 0;
		}
	}
	input:checked + label {
		background-color: $orange;
	}
	label {
		margin-right: 5px;
		padding: 2px;
		border: 1px solid $orange;
		border-radius: 100%;
		width: 18px;
		height: 18px;
		background-clip: content-box;
		cursor: pointer;
		transition: all 300ms;
		&:hover {
			border-color: $blue;
			background-color: $blue;
			box-shadow: 0 0 7px $blue;
		}
	}
	span {
		font-size: 16px;
	}
}

效果展示:
使用+或~美化选项框

使用:focus-within分发冒泡响应

要点:表单控件触发focus和blur事件后往父元素进行冒泡,在父元素上通过:focus-within捕获该冒泡事件来设置样式

场景:登录注册弹框、表单校验、离屏导航、导航切换

兼容::focus-within、:placeholder-shown

实例代码:

HTML

<div class="bruce flex-ct-x">
	<form class="bubble-distribution">
		<h3>注册</h3>
		<div class="accout">
			<input type="text" placeholder="请输入手机或邮箱" pattern="^1[3456789]\d{9}$|^[\w-]+(\.[\w-]+)*@[\w-]+(\.[\w-]+)+$" required>
			<img src="https://b-gold-cdn.xitu.io/v3/static/img/greeting.1415c1c.png">
		</div>
		<div class="password">
			<input type="password" placeholder="请输入密码(6到20位字符)" pattern="^[\dA-Za-z_]{6,20}$" required>
			<img src="https://b-gold-cdn.xitu.io/v3/static/img/blindfold.58ce423.png">
		</div>
		<div class="code">
			<input type="text" placeholder="请输入邀请码(6位数字)" pattern="^[\d]{6}$" maxLength="6" required>
			<button type="button">查询</button>
			<img src="https://b-gold-cdn.xitu.io/v3/static/img/greeting.1415c1c.png">
		</div>
		<img src="https://b-gold-cdn.xitu.io/v3/static/img/normal.0447fe9.png">
		<ul>
			<li>
				<input type="radio" name="sex" id="male">
				<label for="male">Boy</label>
			</li>
			<li>
				<input type="radio" name="sex" id="female">
				<label for="female">Girl</label>
			</li>
		</ul>
		<button type="button">注册</button>
	</form>
</div>

CSS

.bruce {
	background-color: #999;
}
.bubble-distribution {
	position: relative;
	margin-top: 50px;
	padding: 25px;
	border-radius: 2px;
	width: 320px;
	background-color: #fff;
	h3 {
		font-weight: bold;
		font-size: 16px;
		color: #333;
	}
	div {
		margin-top: 10px;
	}
	img {
		position: absolute;
		left: 50%;
		bottom: 100%;
		margin: 0 0 -20px -60px;
		width: 120px;
	}
	ul {
		display: flex;
		justify-content: space-between;
		align-items: center;
		margin-top: 10px;
		height: 30px;
		line-height: 30px;
	}
	li {
		position: relative;
		width: 45%;
		transition: all 300ms;
		&:focus-within {
			background: linear-gradient(90deg, $blue 50%, transparent 0) repeat-x,
				linear-gradient(90deg, $blue 50%, transparent 0) repeat-x,
				linear-gradient(0deg, $blue 50%, transparent 0) repeat-y,
				linear-gradient(0deg, $blue 50%, transparent 0) repeat-y;
			background-position: 0 0, 0 100%, 0 0, 100% 0;
			background-size: 8px 1px, 8px 1px, 1px 8px, 1px 8px;
			animation: move 500ms infinite linear;
		}
	}
	input[type=text],
	input[type=password] {
		padding: 10px;
		outline: none;
		border: 1px solid #e9e9e9;
		border-radius: 2px;
		width: 100%;
		height: 40px;
		transition: all 300ms;
		&:focus:valid {
			border-color: $blue;
		}
		&:focus:invalid {
			border-color: $red;
		}
	}
	input[type=radio] {
		position: absolute;
		width: 0;
		height: 0;
		&:checked + label {
			border: 3px solid transparent;
			background-color: $blue;
			color: #fff;
		}
	}
	label {
		display: block;
		border-bottom: 1px solid #ccc;
		width: 100%;
		background-clip: padding-box;
		cursor: pointer;
		text-align: center;
		transition: all 300ms;
	}
	button {
		overflow: hidden;
		margin-top: 10px;
		outline: none;
		border: none;
		border-radius: 2px;
		width: 100%;
		height: 40px;
		background-color: $blue;
		cursor: pointer;
		color: #fff;
		transition: all 300ms;
	}
}
.accout,
.password,
.code {
	img {
		display: none;
		margin-bottom: -27px;
	}
	&:focus-within {
		img {
			display: block;
		}
		& ~ img {
			display: none;
		}
	}
}
.code {
	display: flex;
	justify-content: space-between;
	button {
		margin-top: 0;
	}
	input {
		&:not(:placeholder-shown) {
			width: 70%;
			& + button {
				width: 25%;
			}
		}
		&:placeholder-shown {
			width: 100%;
			& + button {
				width: 0;
				opacity: 0;
			}
		}
	}
}
@keyframes move {
	to {
		background-position: 6% 0, -6% 100%, 0 -6%, 100% 6%;
	}
}

效果展示:
使用:focus-within分发冒泡响应

使用:hover描绘鼠标跟随

要点:将整个页面等比划分成小的单元格,每个单元格监听:hover,通过:hover触发单元格的样式变化来描绘鼠标运动轨迹

场景:鼠标跟随轨迹、水波纹、怪圈

兼容::hover

实例代码:点击运行

效果展示:
使用:hover描绘鼠标跟随

使用max-height切换自动高度

要点:通过max-height定义收起的最小高度和展开的最大高度,设置两者间的过渡切换

场景:隐藏式子导航栏、悬浮式折叠面板

兼容:max-height

实例代码:

HTML

<div class="bruce flex-ct-x">
	<ul class="auto-height">
		<li>
			<h3>列表1</h3>
			<p>内容1<br>内容2<br>内容3<br>内容4</p>
		</li>
		<li>
			<h3>列表2</h3>
			<p>内容1<br>内容2<br>内容3<br>内容4</p>
		</li>
		<li>
			<h3>列表3</h3>
			<p>内容1<br>内容2<br>内容3<br>内容4</p>
		</li>
	</ul>
</div>

CSS

.auto-height {
	width: 300px;
	li {
		margin-top: 5px;
		cursor: pointer;
		&:first-child {
			margin-top: 0;
		}
		&:hover p {
			border-bottom-width: 1px;
			max-height: 600px;
		}
	}
	h3 {
		padding: 0 20px;
		height: 40px;
		background-color: $red;
		cursor: pointer;
		line-height: 40px;
		font-size: 16px;
		color: #fff;
	}
	p {
		overflow: hidden;
		padding: 0 20px;
		border: 1px solid $red;
		border-top: none;
		border-bottom-width: 0;
		max-height: 0;
		line-height: 30px;
		transition: all 500ms;
	}
}

效果展示:
使用max-height切换自动高度

使用transform模拟视差滚动

要点:通过background-attachment:fixed或transform让多层背景以不同的速度移动,形成立体的运动效果

场景:页面滚动、视差滚动文字阴影、视差滚动文字虚影

兼容:background-attachment、transform

实例代码:

HTML

<div class="bruce">
	<ul class="parallax-scrolling">
		<li>translateZ(-1px)</li>
		<li>translateZ(-2px)</li>
		<li>translateZ(-3px)</li>
	</ul>
	<p>内容</p>
	<ul class="parallax-scrolling">
		<li>translateZ(-1px)</li>
		<li>translateZ(-2px)</li>
		<li>translateZ(-3px)</li>
	</ul>
</div>

CSS

$bg: "/static/codepen/bg.jpg";

.bruce {
	overflow: auto;
	perspective: 1px;
	transform-style: preserve-3d;
	p {
		height: 300px;
		line-height: 300px;
		text-align: center;
		font-size: 20px;
		color: $red;
	}
}
.parallax-scrolling {
	display: flex;
	justify-content: center;
	align-items: center;
	height: 1000px;
	background: url($bg) no-repeat center fixed;
	li {
		width: 500px;
		text-align: center;
		font-weight: bold;
		font-size: 60px;
		&:nth-child(1) {
			color: $red;
			transform: translateZ(-1px);
		}
		&:nth-child(2) {
			color: $blue;
			transform: translateZ(-2px);
		}
		&:nth-child(3) {
			color: $green;
			transform: translateZ(-3px);
		}
	}
}

效果展示:
使用transform模拟视差滚动

使用animation-delay保留动画起始帧

要点:通过transform-delay或animation-delay设置负值时延保留动画起始帧,让动画进入页面不用等待即可运行

场景:开场动画

兼容:transform、animation

实例代码:

HTML

<div class="bruce flex-ct-x">
	<ul class="initial-keyframe">
		<li></li>
		<li></li>
		<li></li>
	</ul>
</div>

CSS

.initial-keyframe {
	position: relative;
	width: 100px;
	height: 100px;
	li {
		position: absolute;
		border-radius: 100%;
		width: 100%;
		height: 100%;
		background-color: $green;
		transform: rotate(0) translate(-80px, 0);
		animation: rotate 3s linear infinite;
		&:nth-child(2) {
			animation-delay: -1s;
		}
		&:nth-child(3) {
			animation-delay: -2s;
		}
	}
}
@keyframes rotate {
	to {
		transform: rotate(1turn) translate(-80px, 0);
	}
}

效果展示:
使用animation-delay保留动画起始帧

使用resize拉伸分栏

要点:通过resize设置横向自由拉伸来调整目标元素的宽度

场景:富文本编辑器、分栏阅读

兼容:resize

实例代码:

HTML

<div class="bruce flex-ct-x">
	<div class="stretching-column">
		<div class="left">
			<div class="resize-bar"></div>
			<div class="resize-line"></div>
			<div class="resize-text">ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ</div>                                            
		</div>
		<div class="right">ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ</div>
	</div>
</div>

CSS

.stretching-column {
	overflow: hidden;
	border: 1px solid $blue;
	width: 600px;
	height: 300px;
	line-height: 20px;
	font-size: 16px;
	color: $orange;
	.left {
		overflow: hidden;
		float: left;
		position: relative;
		height: 100%;
	}
	.right {
		overflow: hidden;
		padding: 10px;
		height: 100%;
		background-color: #f0f0f0;
		word-break: break-all;
	}
}
.resize-bar {
	overflow: scroll;
	width: 200px;
	height: 100%;
	opacity: 0;
	resize: horizontal;
	&::-webkit-scrollbar {
		width: 200px;
		height: 100%;
	}
	&:hover,
	&:active {
		& ~ .resize-line {
			border-left: 1px dashed $blue;
		}
	}
}
.resize-line {
	position: absolute;
	right: 0;
	top: 0;
	bottom: 0;
	border-left: 1px solid #ccc;
	border-right: 2px solid #f0f0f0;
	pointer-events: none;
}
.resize-text {
	overflow-x: hidden;
	position: absolute;
	left: 0;
	right: 5px;
	top: 0;
	bottom: 0;
	padding: 10px;
	word-break: break-all;
}

效果展示:
使用resize拉伸分栏
未完待续。。。请看《你值得收藏的66个实用的css开发技巧之色彩技巧

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